It would seem that, when we make a statement about something only known by description, we often intend to make our statement, not in the form involving the description, but about the actual thing described. That is, they were known by description. To some it will recall travels in Germany, to some the look of Germany on the map, and so on. What this person was acquainted with were certain sense-data which he connected (rightly, we will suppose) with Bismarck's body. There are some significant philosophical … Its innovative character allowed him to shift to his moderate realism, a realism ruled by a more definite categorization of objects. It seems natural to suppose that self-consciousness is one of the things that distinguish men from animals: animals, we may suppose, though they have acquaintance with sense-data, never become aware of this acquaintance. Thus 'a man' is an ambiguous description, and 'the man with the iron mask' is a definite description. It is therefore important to consider what kinds of things there are with which we have acquaintance. Chapter XII. Thus it would seem that, in some way or other, a description known to be applicable to a particular must involve some reference to a particular with which we are acquainted, if our knowledge about the thing described is not to be merely what follows logically from the description. For this reason, theory of knowledge occupies a larger space than metaphysics in the present volume, and some topics much discussed by philosophers are treated very briefly, if at all.
Russel round up week 2.docx - Tamera Irish PHL 100 Prof Starr Russell Round Up Round Two Chapters five through eight have different topics that relate. We shall return to universals later on, in Chapter IX; for the present, it is only necessary to guard against the supposition that whatever we can be acquainted with must be something particular and existent.
Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. There is no state of mind in which we are directly aware of the table; all our knowledge of the table is really knowledge of truths, and the actual thing which is the table is not, strictly speaking, known to us at all. In order to know anything at all about the table, we must know truths connecting it with things with which we have acquaintance: we must know that 'such-and-such sense-data are caused by a physical object'.
Russell addresses this matter in Chapter V. So, that's what I'd read first, online (you can find the whole book online, albeit riddled with typos, which make for rather slow going at times). 16 min; Customer Reviews See All. Once I'd read that chapter, I had to read the book. He further distinguishes two types of knowledge of things, knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description.
What enables us to communicate in spite of the varying descriptions we employ is that we know there is a true proposition concerning the actual Bismarck, and that however we may vary the description (so long as the description is correct) the proposition described is still the same. 2014; Chapter VI - On Induction Chapter VI - On Induction. At the latter end, we can only make propositions that are logically deducible from universals, and at the former end, we come as close as possible to direct acquaintance and can make many propositions identifying the actual object. For the present, we shall merely point out that, in some way or other, it must be possible to meet these objections, for it is scarcely conceivable that we can make a judgement or entertain a supposition without knowing what it is that we are judging or supposing about.
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