From Hughes D (1999) Marketing fruit in Europe. Find the Information’s on Beauty, Fashion, Celebrities, Food, Health, Travel, Parenting, Astrology and more. We've created informative articles that you can come back to again and again when you have questions or want to learn more! For many temperate fruits, large quantities are processed in one form or another (e.g., canned, dried, wine, juice, glacé), and the production data in Tables 1 and 2 include that for processed fruit. The rotted berries become sunken at the point of infection and gradually become more or less shriveled and mummified, while the pustules continue to produce spores. In warm, humid weather it may cause enormous losses by destroying an entire crop of apples just a few weeks before harvest. Grapefruit is rich in fiber, beta carotene, iron, calcium and contains less amount of calories. China is the main country for producing apple, pear, and plum, Turkey is the main producer of cherry and apricot, while the USA is the largest producer of almonds (FAOSTAT, 2012). Fruits characteristic flavor is a complex of sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and volatiles, among others, which differ greatly among cultivars. Genetic transformation is one of the novel approaches that have shown promise in improvement of temperate fruit crops for traits such as tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, enhanced shelf-life, improvement in yield and quality of produce, reduced generation period, and also breeding for self-compatibility. , Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. Note that storage temperature, storage life, and respiration rates vary according to fruit ripeness, cultivar, production area and other factors, and are presented here as a guide only. 11-81). With a tart and sweet flavour, this is the best types of green apples that can be served in the lunch boxes. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In the infected fruit in the field, the fungus remains quiescent until the fruit is harvested and ripening begins. Since the 1930s, the Excelsior Experiment Station at the University of Minnesota has introduced a steady progression of important apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by local orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. We may earn commission from links on this page, but we only recommend products we back. Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced ripening. Also known as rose apples, and this is a popular apple name. I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty.  However, this first whole genome sequence turned out to contain several errors in part owing to the high degree of heterozygosity in diploid apple which, in combination with an ancient genome duplication, complicated the assembly. The disease appears as blossom blight, as leaf blight, and, when moisture conditions are favorable, as tree dieback. Presence of pathogens and their vectors is influenced by climate which could increase the risk of introduction of exotic diseases that may modify the map of pests’ distribution. Your email address will not be published. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. The apple is yellow in colour, which is cherry and bright too. Table 3.12 shows some characteristics of some of these fruits. So, there are various types of apple fruit which can also be determined by the taste they come with. Varieties that ripen in late autumn may be stored for as long as one year, however. Due to the genetic variability in Central Asia, this region is generally considered the center of origin for apples. This group of commodities are all characterized by very low metabolic activity and low water content and activity, and therefore they are very well adapted to be maintained at very low temperatures (0°C or lower), and relatively low (65%–70%) relative humidity, for a long period of time (several months to more than one year). Such infections induce newly formed fruitlets to drop, leaving behind a persistent calyx (button) surrounded by distorted leaves. Today, however, their cultivation is carried out in many countries of the world. , The apple was thus considered, in ancient Greece, sacred to Aphrodite. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. , Apple is diploid, though triploid cultivars are not uncommon, has 17 chromosomes and an estimated genome size of approximately 650 Mb. Would you like to write for us? However, it is extensively used for culinary purposes due to its distinct sweet-sour taste.
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