for expansion. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Press J to jump to the feed. The simplest way to think of it is how the velocity of the detonation affects the “effect” of the explosive. called a train, because the events occur in sequence. a 94/6 mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil has a -0.6% oxygen will be few noticeable effects other than an increase in temperature. The velocity of detonation is an important indicator for overall energy and power of detonation, and in particular for the brisance or shattering effect of an explosive which is due to the detonation pressure. Smoke was seen rising from the hold and several attempts were made to put it out, but the fire kept returning. throw fragments outward our both. Ammonium Nitrate is an adaptable oxidizer that works well when explosions are needed during mining or quarrying operations. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. It is a key, directly measurable indicator of explosive performance, but depends on density which must always be specified, and may be too low if the test charge diameter is not large enough. This is a compilation of published detonation velocities for various high explosive compounds. Ballistic mortar test: 140 % It is reckoned to be about 40% as powerful as TNT. The Grandcamp’s two-ton anchor was thrown more than a mile; it was later retrieved and set up in a memorial park to the disaster. © 2020 Forbes Media LLC. Ammonium nitrate, the material that appears to have caused the massive explosion that devastated Beirut on Tuesday, has been behind some of the largest accidental explosions and terrorist bombings on record. They were mixed with various solid and liquid fuels. Detonation velocity is the speed with which the detonation shock wave travels through the explosive. 3N 3/2 N2. I may be wrong but is the brisance chemically related in anyway to the harmonics of the blast, much like soundwave. (Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images). According to the Lebanese Prime Minister, some 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate were stored in dockside warehouse in Beirut, having been confiscated, so the resulting blast might have been almost equivalent to a one-kiloton weapon. There is usually some small barrier that must TNT has a detonation velocity of 6,900 m/s whereas C4 has a detonation velocity of 8,100 m/s. produced, then the energy will remain in the products as heat. the energy will not be dissipated. that is oxygen deficient. Would that not be directly related to the velocity of the explosive? Primary explosive materials are used to detonate the entire C,H,M&O are the number of moles of carbon, hydrogen, metal from a match or electricity. In the case of TNT, 10 moles of gas are produced by the transfer of energy from the warhead to the target. are known as high explosives. ... C4, or PE4 ( British) is white and Semtex-H is orange. Priorities of explosive reactions. external device which starts the detonation. explosive reactions are energetically possible, they do not occur If no gases are What is really important is the actual strength It is a property of the material and the degree of confinement. Allegedly someone discarded a still-smoldering cigarette butt in the cargo hold. You have to confine gun powder into a small area in order for it to be effective (such as bullets), and even then it's still a relatively small explosion. Although various products are used as primers and boosters, high strength ammonium gelatin, pentolite and TNT are the most commonly used materials, due to their high VOD and detonation pressures. Tungsten or DU? - Rescuers searched for survivors in Beirut after a cataclysmic explosion at the port sowed devastation across entire neighbourhoods, killing more than 100 people, wounding thousands and plunging Lebanon deeper into crisis. Springer. and oxygen in the balanced reaction and MW is the molecular weight b) Mixing One of the great advantages of ANFO is that it is convenient and inherently safe to use. which then will continue by itself until completion. They release a large amount of energy, but due to the relatively DE = DEf(reactants) X 100. A nonprofit's core purpose determines its IRS tax classification as either a 501(c)(3) or 501(c)(4). Flash powder on the other hand is known as a high explosive because it converts to a gas incredibly fast. compounds. Information about your device and internet connection, including your IP address, Browsing and search activity while using Verizon Media websites and apps. I'm a South London-based technology journalist, consultant and author, ignition of a huge depot of ammonium nitrate at Beirut's port, on August 5, 2020. low. of nitroglycerin. Once the fuse is installed, the entire device requires great care itself by a rapid expansion of hot gases, which in turn can create TNT is an example of a relatively powerful explosive In addition to the Hopefully someone else could provide more in depth explanations for the "why". New science. Edit: clarity. explosive . This page was last modified on 18 January 2016, at 11:45. The internal phase is composed of a solution of oxidizer salts suspended as microscopically fine droplets, which are surrounded by a continuous fuel phase. I'm gonna steal this top comment to say that in the oilfield, we set plugs in well bores wish slow explosives that are used to put pressure on a piston. TNT May make a hole, but C4 or other high velocity explosives can be used as precision tools in ways that would surprise you. Many compounds may be added to ANFO. You may opt-out by. Overall: TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. 1. DE = the heat of explosion in kJ/mol Example: find the heat of explosion for TNT. The British military uses a very similar plastic explosive known as PE4. Deflagration is another thing entirely. Some slurries are dependent on entrapped air for their sensitivity, with cap- sensitive slurries dependant to a lesser extent. Watergels and Slurries Explosive Properties Table, Template:MDW Meta:Comparison of explosives, https://minewiki.engineering.queensu.ca/mediawiki/index.php?title=Comparison_of_explosives&oldid=5828. If you use ammonium nitrate, you now have an empty ditch with all the rocks to either side. consumed) and in order of precedence: Table The heats RDX: to detonate, called insensitive or secondary explosives. The ease of which an explosive may For more visit: http://dsc.discovery.com/tv/mythbusters/#mkcpgn=ytdsc1 OB = -(100 %)(16/227)[2(7) + 5/2 - 6] = -72%. ANFO based explosives are the backbone of the explosives industry. In this case the problem was that a mix of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate had set hard in a storage silo, and workers were breaking it up with dynamite. up of secondary (insensitive) material and cannot be detonated.
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